ITIA Bulletin – February 2013


In this edition of the Bulletin we are hoping to kick start 2013 with an eye to increasing the turnover of all our practicing interpreter and translator members. Times might be hard but as one of our articles clearly demonstrates commerce and languages make good partners, indeed, one cannot function without the other. Commerce, in this instance fashion, may transcend national barriers but not without the input of cultural and language professionals – that’s us!

Our profession, craft and skill have so many applications in so many diverse fields from interpreting in court rooms and cancer wards to translating topics like tea bags and toll bridges. Certainly there can be no complaints about lack of variety.

We will endeavour to offer as broad a range of articles, reports, reviews etc. as the fields you work in as well as content that appeals to all readers whatever their stage of practice – from enthusiastic novices starting out on their linguistic careers to seasoned professionals still interested enough to scan the Bulletin. Your contributions are most welcome at the [email protected]

Anne Larchet


Courtroom savings hard to interpret

Doubts have been cast on the level of savings claimed by the government for its courtroom interpreting contract, as more interpreters refuse to work under the new terms. A year after the widely criticised contract came into effect, the Ministry of Justice has told the Gazette that it “anticipates to have made a saving of £15m in the first year”.

However it was not able to say what percentage of cases were being dealt with under the contract, and what had been spent on interpreters outside the contract. Professional Interpreters for Justice, which represents 10 interpreter organisations, claims that only 50% of cases that require an interpreter are being dealt with under the contract.

The Ministry of Justice originally expected to save £18m a year under a framework agreement with Applied Language Solutions, subsequently bought by Capita.

That figure was revised to £12m, but in July Justice Minister Lord McNally indicated that the figure would probably not be achieved in the first year.

The contract, whose failings were first reported by the Gazette last February, has been criticised by the National Audit Office and the Commons Public Accounts Committee for procurement and delivery failures. A report by the Commons Justice Committee is expected this week.

Hundreds of professional interpreters have boycotted the contract from the outset due to concerns over pay and standards.

Capita last week confirmed that it had made new cuts to travel rates, but said it had noticed no change in the level of work being accepted by interpreters on its books. “It was always expected that the first year of Capita’s contract with the Ministry of Justice would not be profitable. We anticipate that 2013 will see us move into profit,” it said.

Shadow justice secretary Sadiq Khan said: “Until the Ministry of Justice is open about how much has been spent on interpreters outside of the ALS/Capita contract, ministerial claims of major savings simply won’t be believed.”

Catherine Baksi

Original source:

Article republished with permission from The Law

Society Gazette

Internet for Business

Few customers outside Germany will have noticed when Debenhams launched in September, becoming the first UK department store to establish a foreign language website. Yet the move caused ripples among the competition, with other retailers equally eager to expand globally. “‘International’ is key on everyone’s agenda,” says Lindsay Clifford-Smith Debenham’s International E-Commerce Senior Marketing Manager. “It’s nice for us to be right up there at the forefront.”

At the same time, Debenhams expanded sales from its UK-based website to 40 countries, and opened stores in Bulgaria and Georgia for the first time, putting a 2.6 percent rise in sales down to its international expansion and multi-channel strategies. Having launched for the Irish market in 2010, there were compelling reasons to look to Germany next, not least because “it’s nice to pick something close to home,” says

Clifford-Smith when we meet at company HQ, behind the flags

hip store on London’s Oxford Street.

After the UK, Germany is the largest e-commerce market in Europe, with 41 million German customers spending €6.34 billion online in the first quarter of 2012. “Once we had the business case it was about putting it to the systems team, to decide how we were going to optimise and localise our UK business for German customers,” adds Clifford-Smith.

The process took about a year, from green-light to online launch. If that seems short, considering the logistics involved in selling more than 2,000 brands in a foreign language and territory, bear in mind that Debenhams was already distributing to seven overseas markets, including Germany, and had an order management system dealing with nearly three million orders every month.

“It’s not possible for us to suddenly launch a bunch of international websites globally,” says Clifford-Smith.

“But we’ve got a lot in place, so we can leverage our systems and everything we’ve already got in the UK.” Debenhams Direct, the retailer’s online division, has been in operation since 1998. In 2010, it launched its first app allowing customers to shop at Debenhams from their mobile phones. So when a new international team was created to support the German, Irish and future international websites, they had a lot of in-house experience to draw on.

Aside from the issue of localising the web content, there were other challenges, such as the implications of trading in euros and the company’s approach to reconciliation; differing rates and reporting systems for VAT; registering the online store for trade in Germany; making sure they complied with German retail laws and obligations; and determining the logistics of everything from pr

ess campaigns to deliveries and returns.

The website itself looks very similar to the .com site, although the large homepage image often differs. It is designed as a “wire shell”, ready to be filled with text and images, which helps to minimise the pitfalls involved in

web translation. They have encountered standard problems, such as templates that didn’t work with German grammar rules and long compound words that didn’t fit the allotted space, but Clifford-Smith is confident that the web design suits their needs: “Having image-led pages, where we can fill that with a German message, makes it really customisable, really dynamic and really fast-paced.”

On Tuesday, they might be selling evening dresses; on Thursday, pushing scarves and gloves. Speed is key, and this is one of the few frustrations they have with the German-language website. Although there is a German­speaking team in-house, they use an agency to translate the product details and buying guides for tens of thousands of goods. This includes information such as the product name, composition and description, as well as style and care advice. “Another challenge is the time, because there is that extra step,” admits Clifford-Smith. “It’s about educating the business and building that into your timelines. We want to do it all yesterday, but it needs to be right as well.”

Selling British fashion to Germany

Based at Debenhams HQ in London, the German e- commerce team is led by native speaker Sarah Stott. Having a German manager who knows both the brand and the target market has been essential to establishing and maintaining a localised online store. “I know the German market and I also know the culture,” says Stott. “That’s a big plus-just being able to see how something would be received in Germany. Why certain things would work in the UK and might not work in Germany” Each campaign is assessed on its own merits; sometimes UK and German promotions coincide but often runs its own, localised campaigns. Covering home products, gifts and toys, as well as clothing, the website nevertheless offers a restricted product range. Apart from the logistical issues of selling items such as furniture, there are differences in standard measurements, so they need to make sure that bed linen

fits German requirements, for example. Tastes differ too, wi

th bold prints selling better in the UK, so some ranges are unlikely to perform as well in Germany.

Stott’s team has to be aware of everything that is going on in Germany, despite being based in the UK. “So if it’s a lovely weekend in Berlin and actually blustering blizzards over here, we’d localise our content,” explains Clifford-Smith. This might mean selling dresses to the Germans while promoting hats and scarves in the UK. It’s not only about choosing what to promote but also how to promote it. “If we’re pushing dresses, we might say “evening dresses” for the UK and we might say “ball dresses” in Germany, if we know that the school-leavers” ball is coming up,” explains Stott. A recent “designer deal” was labelled “London Fashion Week” for the Germans, because that was likely to grab customers’ attention while at the same time helping to establish the Debenhams brand.

After the UK, Germany is the largest e-commerce market in Europe, with 41 million German customers Selling itself as “the British high street online”, Debenhams Direct aims to bring UK fashion to Germany, so establishing the brand is vital. On the German website, they talk a lot about who they are. “We’ve got the recognition in the UK, our customers know who we are. We don’t have that following in Germany, so we design the website in a way that ensures we’re also educating,” says Clifford-Smith. “We have a saying that we’re 2,010 brands under one roof. We’d never bother saying that in the UK; we don’t need to.”

For this reason, much of the German web content is original, written by Stott and her team. They have the in­house language skills to send emails, post on social media, and write features and web content in German. However, the press agency and customer services team are based in Germany, so that they can provide a local service that meets the needs of both the customer and the company.

They also work with local agencies that have in-depth knowledge of online consumer behaviour in Germany, and employ “insight” specialists who work directly with customers, observing the way they interact with the website. This information has enabled them to create a fully localised website. The differences are subtle but significant – and based entirely on customer behaviour.

There is a unique sort order at the top of the homepage,

for example, so that “when the customer is buying, we’re always showing them what they want,” says Clifford- Smith. In English, the categories start (from left to right) “women”, “beauty”, “home and furniture”, with shoes listed seventh; in German you get Damen, Herren, Kinder, Schuhe…

Continual use of analytics tools enables them to further improve the website’s performance by assessing how well each element is working – what items are (and aren’t) clicked, how formatting changes affect consumer responses, etc. This cycle of analysis and optimisation is a familiar process for the e-commerce team, but there is a lot they have learnt from their first foreign language venture that they can take forward to future online stores. They are already working on their next foreign language website, but which language it will use is still a closely guarded secret.

Miranda Moore

Miranda Moore is a freelance editor and journalist. She has been the Editor of The Linguist for seven years. This article was first published in the Linguist (issue 51.6) the magazine of the Chartered Institute of Linguists. For the onl

ine issue see

Vicarious Trauma and the Professional Interpreter

Imagine yourself in a situation where it is entirely your responsibility to ensure that someone else’s voice is heard. Perhaps, that person is a refugee seeking legal aid, or a woman moving into a domestic abuse shelter, or maybe a young girl sitting in a police station describing her recent sexual assault. You are not the lawyer, social worker or detective investigating the case. Rather, you are the interpreter and it is your job to make sure the person gets the help needed.

Studies have shown that nearly all language interpreters experience some symptoms of vicarious trauma, burn out, compassion fatigue, or increased stress as a result of their repeated exposure to traumatic information and stories.

Vicarious trauma can be best understood as the absorbing of another person’s trauma, the transformation of the helper’s inner sense of identity and experience. It is what happens to your physical, psychological, emotional and spiritual health in response to someone else’s traumatic history. Vicarious trauma can affect your perception of the world around you and can result in serious mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and addiction if untreated. Interpreters seem to experience vicarious trauma differently than other professionals providing aid since they do more than witness the trauma; they channel it.

The Trauma and Attachment Report recently had the opportunity to speak with Simona, a Czech and Slovak language interpreter who works mainly with Czech, Slovak and Roma refugees and newly immigrated individuals; Simona spoke about her experiences as an interpreter.

Q: Can you describe your role and responsibilities a

s an interpreter?

A: As an interpreter we have our own code of ethics. I have to interpret meaning for meaning, everything that is said with accuracy and fidelity. There has to be confidentiality on my part which means I cannot share anything with anyone other than those I work with. I have to remain impartial and objective, and cannot show bias or preference for anything regarding the case. Simply put, I am not there. I do not have an opinion; I merely act as a channel for each side.

Q: What is an average day like for you?

A: I work with all kinds of service providers: Children’s Aid Society, parole and probation officers, lawyers, police, hospitals, schools, courts, victim witness services, settlement workers, community workers, public health and home visitors , addictions workers, insurance companies, refugee shelters, shelters for women and children, emigration, social benefits tribunal and more. An average day usually consists of two in-person interpreting assignments and a number of assignments over the phone. Most of the time I’m interpreting problems that are more extreme than the average person experiences because, considering the service providers I work with, there is usually a problem if the client needs their assistance.

Q: Have you come into contact with vicarious trauma?

A: I first heard about it during my interpreter’s training. W

e were warned that there will be times when the job would be extremely difficult and that we may come into contact with traumatic situations that will affect us emotionally and physically. It was explained that journalists, humanitarian workers and health care providers can experience vicarious trauma because of what they witness every day. The difference is that I interpret both sides and I have to experience the feelings of those two sides.

So, for example, if the doctor says something really painful to a patient, I am the one relaying the information; so to these people who don’t understand English, I am the one delivering the news. But I am also the one who interprets the reaction and the pain of the patient to the doctor. Sometimes people get so frustrated that they curse and yell and I have to say it the same way, with the same feelings, because I must interpret meaning for meaning.

It’s difficult to have to speak in this manner to a service provider, but it’s not me who is talking. Again, however, in the first person I feel the emotion. Because you are constantly saying “I, I, I,” you start associating with the story much more than if you were just reading or hearing about it, and you unwittingly start to absorb the trauma as if it were your own.

…you are the interpreter and it is your job to make sure the person gets the help needed.

Q: Can you describe your own experience with v

icarious trauma?

A: Without going into specific details I can say that interpreting for victims of physical abuse and rape, or for a person with a terminal disease, are the hardest situations. Sometimes what happens is that a certain situation can trigger some of your own past experiences and negative emotions.

Even after twenty years, I’m sometimes reliving how difficult it was to be a new immigrant, how I felt that I was not accepted, that I was not smart enough because I didn’t speak the language, and how much I missed my family and my country.

There have been situations where I had to work very hard to compose myself, and after the session, I would sit in my car and cry. And, there were times when I would feel physically sick afterwards. I’ve only cried once during an assignment, but we are all only human and there are certain situations that are just too difficult not to have an emotional response.

Q: Do you experience any other side effects?

A: I experience their sadness, their pain, their emotional pain; but there have been times when I’ve actually experienced physical pain as well. When I interpreted physical abuse or rape, it was as though my body actually felt it. Occasionally I have nightmares or insomnia and I go back in my mind and I think about the person. Sometimes I cry and that helps me. I also appreciate my life and my family and friends much more, and try not to take them for granted.

Q: What helps you overcome these negative symptoms?

A: Truthfully, it always takes me a couple of days after a particularly hard case to go back to normal. It helps to talk to a friend who is also an interpreter because they understand better than anyone what this job is about, and that it can bring you into contact with very unusual and painful situations. Meditation and prayer help, and even watching a movie or reading a book can help me get back to normal.

Sometimes remembering that at least I can help the person in pain to express themselves and get the help they need makes me feel better. Also, starting on another interpreting assignment helps put me back in the present and reminds me that I have to remain focused on the task at hand. It’s as though I’m wiping the slate clean, so to speak, and moving forward. And, I have to remind myself that it’s not my trauma, and that I can help.

Q: Have your experiences affected any other parts of your life?

A: Yes. Sometimes I get angry. I get angry that my friends and others take things for granted and don’t see how difficult life is for so many. And I can’t exactly explain it to them because of confidentiality. At home, sometimes I don’t feel like talking for the whole evening because I’m still processing what happened.

After a particularly hard assignment, it’s really difficult for me to read the newspaper or watch the news because I have a feeling that there is so much pain and negativity in the world, it can be hard to bear sometimes. I need some time and space before I can get back to my regular life.

Q: Do you feel that there are any positive aspects of your experiences as an interpreter?

A: Absolutely. I had a client and I went through her entire pregnancy with her. I was in the delivery room with her as well, and she had beautiful twins. I felt the joy of the parents and the doctors as well. Knowing that I help people to communicate makes it worthwhile. And when I start an assignment and people tell me they are happy that I’m there for them, that makes it worthwhile. Even though the interpreter should be invisible and just channel what the parties are saying, it is inevitable that they find you comforting because you speak their language and you understand their culture. My job teaches me to treat people with dignity and respect regardless of their life situation. I have to be grateful for that.

Jana Vigor

Original source

New English-Irish Dictionary on line/ Focloir Nua Bearla -Gaeilge

Ar 24 Eanair sheol Uachtaran na hEireann, Micheal D. O  hUiginn, leagan ar-lme d’fhocloir nua Bearla-Gaeilge Fhoras na Gaeilge, an chead mhorfhocloir da short o foilsfodh English-Irish Dictionary de Bhaldraithe in 1959.

Is feidir teacht ar an bhfocloir nua ar lme saor in aisce ag agus ta timpeall is trian da abhar deiridh ar fail ann faoi lathair. Cuimsfonn sin thar 80% de ghnathusaid an Bhearla. Beifear ag cur leis an leagan ar-lme i mbliana agus an bhliain seo chugainn, agus foilseofar an leagan deiridh ar line agus mar leabhar araon in 2015.

On 24 January President Michael D. Higgins launched an on-line version of Foras na Gaeilge’s new English- Irish dictionary, the first such major work since the publication of de Bhaldraithe’s dictionary in 1959.

This new on-line dictionary can be accessed free at and currently contains about a third of its final content. This covers over 80% of normal usage in English. The online version will be expanded this year and next, and the final version will be published both online and as a hard copy in 2015.

Maire Nic Mhaolain

Australians raise the bar for interpreting and translating

A new code of ethics for Australian interpreters and translators has this week been released to the public by the national professional association on its website. Concerns about interpreting standards and conditions in Australian courts and hospitals prompted a two-year review of the previous code.

With support from Monash University, ten translation experts from around Australia, drawn from the university and the national professional body, the Australian Institute of Interpreters and Translators (AUSIT), collaborated to identify best practices from around the world. The working group analysed findings from numerous international forums including, courts, war crimes tribunals and other professional associations. “Our clients often have no way of telling how good an interpreter or translator is,” said AUSIT President, Annamaria Arnall.

Ms Arnall said that the updated code has been endorsed by the government’s accreditation office, the National Accreditation Authority for Interpreters and Translators (NAATI).

“They need to feel confident in the service they get, especially when it’s in another language.”

Before its public release, the Australian initiative was also formally adopted by AUSIT’s counterpart in New Zealand, making it the most important reference for language services in the southern hemisphere.

“It is the only such code in the world to be adopted throughout a region and not just within a single country,” Ms Arnall said.

Ms Arnall said that the work of translators and interpreters affected the quality of services in diverse fields such as legal and medical services, policing, mining and manufacturing, export and import trade, education and migration.

One of the authors of the code of ethics, Adelaide-based translator and interpreter Christian Schmidt, said that the new code goes a step further than its international counterparts to safeguard both the users of language services and practitioners. He said that the revised code goes a step further than the previous version by setting higher standards for collaboration and service delivery.

“Interpreters must be impartial, but parties often expect them to be their advocate and this causes an ethical dilemma,” he said. ” Our code gives detailed guidance on professional boundaries. Legal or medical advice should only come from a legal or medical professional and not from a language professional. Their job is to facilitate communication across cultural boundaries and enable parties to understand each other – a task that requires content knowledge and multiple skills, and is often very challenging.”

Ms Arnall said that the industry’s gold standard for ethical practice in interpreting and translating will be celebrated by AUSIT at the national Excellence Awards in Melbourne in November this year.

The AUSIT Code of Ethics and Code of Conduct can be found at

About AUSIT The Australian Institute of Interpreters and Translators Inc.

The Australian Institute of Interpreters and Translators (AUSIT) is the national association for the translating and interpreting profession.

Members adhere to a strict Code of Ethics and follow continuous professional development. This gives you the opportunity to choose from a pool of experienced and qualified translators and interpreters.

AUSIT is committed to providing a forum for exchange, fostering the development of professional relationships with fellow translators & interpreters, agencies and language service users, government departments, tertiary institutions and other industry stakeholders, and promoting ethics and quality standards through the industry.

AUSIT holds events and training workshops throughout the year including the biennial signature events, AUSIT National Biennial Conference and the AUSIT Excellence Awards to provide members the best opportunities to grow as translators & interpreters.

Australian Institute of Interpreters and Translators

Original source:

What’s Hot, What’s Not

In this edition we are starting a new space for short news items that are hot or not – we would really like to hear from Bulletin readers with their contributions – no matter how miniscule!

What’s Hot

On the Irish Times Literary correspondent’s January list of 44 books that made most impression 22 were translations – and the translator was named!

What’s Not

As part of cost savings measures Irish government decided not to provide interpreting services for inauguration of EU presidency in January.

Book Review

Handbook of Translation Studies Vol. 1, ed. Yves Gambier and Luc van Doorslaer. x+458 pp. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2010. ISBN 978 90 272 0331 1 (hbk) / ISBN 978 90 272 7376 5 (ebk). €105 / $158 (hbk & ebk). Click here for subscription rates to the online handbook.

One sign of the coming of age of Translation Studies as a discipline is the increasing number of quaternary research resources providing surveys of the area. These range from lexicons like Shuttleworth and Cowie’s Dictionary of Translation Studies and Giuseppe

Palumbo’s Key Terms in Translation Studies, to introductory textbooks like Jeremy Munday’s popular Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Applications and Basil Hatim’s Teaching and Researching Translation Studies, to broader ‘companions’ like Malmkjsr and Windle’s Oxford Handbook of Translation Studies and encyclopaedias like de Gruyter’s vast (and vastly expensive) Ubersetzung – Translation – Traduction, edited under the direction of Harald Kittel. Textbooks aside, the most popular reference guide in the past 15 years, and the book to which the present volume can most easily be compared, is Mona Baker’s Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, the second edition of which appeared in 2009 co-edited with Gaby Saldanha. However, unlike the Routledge Encyclopedia (though similar to the Kittel et al.), the present Handbook (HTS) is multi-volume. Unlike all of these books, it is available in both print and e-book editions and as an online database, searchable by title, author and subject, with hyperlinks to Benjamins’ online Translation Studies Bibliography. Authors of entries in the online database will be updating them occasionally, so subscribers should be able to keep abreast of research developments.

Rather than being planned as a fixed-length encyclopaedia, the publication of HTS volumes is open- ended, with a new volume appearing on a roughly annual basis over several years (the exact time frame is unspecified). As to the division of content, rather than compiling a grand taxonomy of the discipline and dividing it between volumes alphabetically, each individual volume presents from A to Z entries on a selection of topics. Thus, understandably, the first presents contributions on broad areas like “Translation” (Sandra Halverson, 7 pages), “Interpreting” (Franz Pochhacker, 5 pages), “Audiovisual Translation” (Aline Remael, 5.5 pages), and “Translation Studies” (Jeremy Munday, 10 pages), along with narrower topics like “Curriculum” (Dorothy Kelly, 7 pages), “Hermeneutics and Translation” (Radegundis Stolze, 6 pages), and

“Media Interpreting” (Pochhacker again, 3 pages). Thus it is not unreasonable to presume that later volumes of HTS will feature greater numbers of contributions on the narrower topics, given that the broader ones will already have been dealt with.

Personally I find this prospect exciting – when one compares, for example, the ground-breaking first edition of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies with the second of a decade later, one can see what is probably an understandable conservatism creeping in, though personally I missed the quirky entries like “Game Theory and Translation”, “Metaphrase” and “Pure Language” in the later edition. The promise of narrower topics in later volumes of HTS is enticing and going in the opposite direction to Baker & Saldanha, albeit for different reasons.

As can be seen from the page-length indicators of entries above, there is not always a correlation between narrowness of field and length of entry; this reviewer did not feel that any entry was too long, though a couple could have been developed further, such as Luise von Flotow’s tantalisingly brief account of “Gender in Translation” (generally the matter of gender is under­represented in the book and one hopes this will be rectified in future volumes).

Certainly HTS can boast entries from acknowledged international authorities on particular topics: Robin Setton on “Conference Interpreting”, Juliane House on “Overt and Covert Translation”, Jorge Diaz Cintas on “Subtitling”, Michaela Wolf on “Sociology of Translation” – in fact there is barely a single contributor whose writing will be unfamiliar to those of us working in the field. Of course with this runs the risk of writers rehashing their previous writings. It is a credit to Michael Cronin, who has probably lost count of the number of times he’s been asked to write on globalization and translation, that his entry on the subject here is sufficiently different and updated from his account of the same topic in the Routledge Encyclopedia to sustain interest. Jacobus Naude, on the other hand, writing on religious translation, echoes several of his own previous writings (sometimes word for word).

What of the entries themselves? In a review of this length there is obviously insufficient space to do them justice, though there were several that I found valuable such as Dirk Delabastita’s lively account of “Literary Studies and Translation Studies”, Dorothy Kelly on “Translation Didactics”, and Reinhard Schaler on “Localization and Translation”. Deborah Folaron’s article on “Networking and Volunteer Translators” is excellent, though probably needs to be updated with quite a lot having been published on this topic since this volume’s appearance.

I   read Yves Gambier on “Translation Strategies and Tactics” with particular interest, having written an entry on the same subject myself for the second edition of the Routledge Encyclopedia. Certainly, both our entries differ radically from Lawrence Venuti’s in the first edition of Routledge, which reflected Venuti’s personal interests in accounting for just two strategies – domestication and foreignization; Gambier does not mention either (nor does he mention Venuti) though in terms of binary oppositions I was more surprised that he makes no mention of the free/literal strategy distinction, which I would consider primary. On the other hand, Gambier considers interpreting and audiovisual translation in his entry, which I did not in mine, and for this he is to be credited. We both agree that there are difficulties in defining “strategy” (a point noted by other theorists too) and that it’s a slippery concept. Overall, I found his entry enlightening.

Regrets? It is a shame that Benjamins didn’t decide to bring out a cheaper paperback edition for non-library purchasers – the popularity would easily have justified it. An index of names in addition to, or combined with, the one on subjects at the back of the book would have made it more user-friendly. Also, from an editorial point of view, the entries betray a variety of different writing styles, some of which are more redolent of continental European academic writing than of writing in the contemporary Anglo-Saxon academic world (e.g. the extensive use of Latin in Lieven D’hulst’s entry on “Translation History” may appear somewhat pompous to readers in the UK, Ireland, and USA). HTS does not (yet?) have entries on the national histories and traditions of translation studies, which is a shame: the entries on this in the second edition of the Routledge Encyclopedia generally weren’t updated from the first edition, while the entries in Kittel et al. are often highly specialised and, of course, are beset by that project’s more general problems of cost and language barriers (it is presumed that the reader is trilingual). Thus, the provision of national translation histories would be an obvious area into which to expand.

We hope to review further volumes of the Handbook in coming issues of this Bulletin.

John Kearns


Joining the ITIA

The Irish Translators’ & Interpreters’ Association is pleased to welcome new members to the association. We currently have the following categories of membership:

  • Professional
  • Associate
  • Corporate
  • Institutional
  • Student
  • Honorary

Professional Membership is awarded to translators or interpreters who meet the strict criteria of the ITIA based on qualification and level of experience. Applicants must also achieve a PASS in the annual Professional Membership Examination (translator or interpreter) set by the ITIA.

Associate Membership is available to translators and interpreters who are starting out on their careers and to those who do not work full-time as a translator or interpreter. Many members avail of Associate Membership until such time as they have acquired the requisite experience and/or qualifications to apply for Professional Membership. Associate Membership is also availed of by people with a professional interest in the professions of translation and interpreting (e.g. terminologists, translation/interpreting tutors etc.) and by those who have a general interest in these professions.

Corporate Membership is available to translation companies. As this category is currently under review, we are not accepting applications at the moment.

Institutional Membership is available to bodies that do not function as commercial agencies, for example university centres for translation and interpreting studies or cultural institutes. Application documents for Institutional membership are currently being prepared.

Student Membership is available to persons undertaking undergraduate studies in any discipline or those undertaking postgraduate studies in translation or interpreting.

Honorary Membership is awarded by the ITIA AGM to persons in Ireland or abroad who have distinguished themselves in the field of translation or interpreting.

For further details and application forms, please see our website at
New Associate Members of the ITIA – 2013

Liam Melia

English from French, German – patent abstracts and patentability reports

Paloma Perez Feijoo

Spanish to and from English – general, fashion

Mariachiara Della Sala

Italian, Portuguese from English – legal

For more information, visit official Irish Translators and Interpreters Association website.

You can subscribe for free to ITIA Bulletin and receive a monthly pdf copy: simply send a blank email to [email protected]

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